# Using ChatGPT for Pair Programming

### Introduction

*Pair Programming* is an industry-standard methodology that pairs two developers together with the goal of producing a codebase with fewer errors compared to one developer working on the code. Pair programming can be conducted using different techniques. We will be using the driver-navigator pair programming method with ChatGPT. In this technique, one programmer will articulate their ideas (the navigator) and another programmer (the driver) will implement them in code.

Pair programming with ChatGPT is unique because it is not another person. ChatGPT is unable to think critically and provide feedback outside of objectivity. It is unable to comprehend where you may be struggling without you describing the situation clearly. Conversely, ChatGPT is excellent at writing code, especially quickly. Pair programming that could take minutes or hours with a human could take seconds with ChatGPT.

Using ChatGPT as our partner, we will be implementing the graph data structure in Python. Additionally, we will develop code to search these graphs using Breadth-First Search (BFS) and Depth-First Search (DFS). We will start as the driver and ChatGPT as the navigator.

### Setting the Context

Let’s start with scoping ChatGPT to become a senior software engineer. We’ll also state that we will be conducting pair programming using the the driver-navigator pair programming style. We will start as the driver and then switch at a later time.

Prompt:

```
You are an experienced Software Engineer. You and I will be pair programming on a project.
```

Response:

```
Of course, I'm excited to collaborate with you on this project! Pair programming can be a great way to combine our expertise and produce high-quality code. To get started, could you please provide me with an overview of the project, including its goals, requirements, and any specific technologies or tools we'll be using? Additionally, let me know how you'd like to structure our pair programming sessions and any preferences you have for communication and code collaboration.
```

Prompt:

```
We will use the driver-navigator model. I will be the navigator first, then we will switch, then we will switch back again. Do you understand?
```

Response:

```
Absolutely, I'm familiar with the driver-navigator approach to pair programming. In this model, one person takes the role of the "driver," responsible for writing code and actively implementing the changes, while the other person is the "navigator," focused on guiding the overall direction, suggesting solutions, and providing input.
We'll alternate these roles to benefit from different perspectives and expertise. When you're the navigator, feel free to give directions, ask questions, suggest improvements, and ensure that our code aligns with the project's goals and requirements. When it's my turn to be the navigator, I'll be doing the same for you.
Let's get started! Please share the project details, requirements, and any initial tasks you have in mind, and I'll be ready to take on the driver role when it's my turn.
```

As you’ll see later in this article, ChatGPT likes to become the driver at all stages of pair programming. Let’s tell ChatGPT that when it is the navigator, we only want it to describe feedback or provide pseudocode but not provide code.

Prompt:

```
As a navigator, when I explain the logic to you, I want you (as the driver) to implement it in Python code. When you are the navigator, I want you to explain the logic you want me, as the driver, to implement in Python. When you are the navigator, do not write the code for me, but you are welcome to pseudocode. Just tell me what logic I should be implementing in Python. Do you understand?
```

Response:

```
Absolutely, I understand the approach you want to take. As the driver, I'll implement the logic in Python based on your explanations when you're the navigator. And when I'm the navigator, I'll provide you with a clear explanation of the logic and the steps you need to follow to implement it in Python, including any pseudocode if necessary.
Let's establish a good communication rhythm. When you're ready to start as the navigator, go ahead and explain the logic to me, and I'll start implementing it in Python. When it's my turn to navigate, I'll provide you with the logic and guidance for implementation. Feel free to begin whenever you're ready!
```

### ChatGPT as the Driver

We will begin by telling ChatGPT to develop a `Graph`

class.

Prompt:

```
I'd like you to develop an empty `Graph` class
```

Response:

```
Sure, I can help you with that. Here's an empty Graph class in Python:
class Graph:
def __init__(self):
self.nodes = {}
self.edges = {}
def add_node(self, node):
pass
def add_edge(self, node1, node2):
pass
def get_neighbors(self, node):
pass
In this initial implementation, I've defined a basic `Graph` class with methods to add nodes and edges, as well as to retrieve neighbors of a given node. However, the methods themselves don't have any implementation yet. As you take the role of the navigator, please guide me on how you would like these methods to work, and I'll implement the logic accordingly.
```

Prompt:

```
Please modify the code to not include any functions, yet. Please craft an empty `Graph` class.
```

Response:

```
Certainly, here's the modified empty Graph class without any methods:
class Graph:
pass
This is a clean slate for us to start building upon. When you're ready to proceed, you can guide me on what methods you'd like to add and how you want them to function.
```

Every graph structure needs a `Node`

data structure to contain the data in the graph. Let’s tell ChatGPT to develop that structure.

Prompt:

```
Above the `Graph` class, please add a `Node` class that is also empty
```

Response:

```
Certainly, here's the Node class added above the Graph class:
class Node:
pass
class Graph:
pass
We now have an empty Node class as well. Let me know how you'd like to proceed or if there's a specific direction you want to take with these classes.
```

Prompt:

```
Give `Node`a constructor with 2 parameters, `self` and `val`
```

Response:

```
Sure, I've added a constructor to the Node class with the self and val parameters:
class Node:
def __init__(self, val):
pass
class Graph:
pass
The constructor now takes a single parameter, val, which represents the value of the node. Let me know how you'd like to proceed or if there are any other modifications you'd like to make.
```

Prompt:

```
Inside the `Node` constructor, please set the instance's `value` property equal to the `val` parameter. Additionally, set the instance's `edges` property to an empty array
```

Response:

```
Certainly, I've updated the Node constructor as you requested:
class Node:
def __init__(self, val):
self.value = val
self.edges = []
class Graph:
pass
Now, the Node constructor sets the value property to the provided val parameter and initializes the edges property as an empty list. Please let me know how you'd like to proceed or if there's anything else you'd like to add to the classes.
```

With the `Node`

class complete, we’ll go back to the `Graph`

class and create the functions to add `Node`

s to the graph.

Prompt:

```
Inside the `Graph` class, create a constructor that has 2 parameters, `self` and `nodes`. Set the instance's `nodes` to the `nodes` parameter.
```

Response:

```
Certainly, I've added the constructor to the Graph class as you described:
class Node:
def __init__(self, val):
self.value = val
self.edges = []
class Graph:
def __init__(self, nodes):
self.nodes = nodes
Now the Graph class constructor takes two parameters: self and nodes. It sets the instance's nodes property to the provided nodes parameter. Please let me know if you have any further instructions or if you'd like to proceed with adding more functionality to the classes.
```

Prompt:

```
Please set the `nodes` parameter default value equal to the empty list
```

Response:

```
Certainly, I've updated the Graph class constructor to include a default value of an empty list for the nodes parameter:
class Node:
def __init__(self, val):
self.value = val
self.edges = []
class Graph:
def __init__(self, nodes=[]):
self.nodes = nodes
Now, if no nodes parameter is provided when creating a Graph instance, it will default to an empty list. Feel free to provide further guidance on what you'd like to do next or if you have any more changes in mind for the classes.
```

Prompt:

```
We'll need to create 2 `Graph` functions, `add_node` and `add_edge`.
`add_node` should take 2 parameters, `self` and `val`. Inside `add_node`, create a `new_node` equal to an instance of `Node` with the argument of the `val` parameter. Add this to the list of nodes in the `Graph` instance.
`add_edge` should take 3 parameters, `self`, `node1`, and `node2`. In the function, `node1` should add `node2` to its edges. `node2` should also add `node1` to its edges.
```

Response:

```
Certainly, I've implemented the add_node and add_edge methods as per your instructions:
Copy code
class Node:
def __init__(self, val):
self.value = val
self.edges = []
class Graph:
def __init__(self, nodes=[]):
self.nodes = nodes
def add_node(self, val):
new_node = Node(val)
self.nodes.append(new_node)
def add_edge(self, node1, node2):
node1.edges.append(node2)
node2.edges.append(node1)
With these methods added, the add_node method creates a new Node instance with the provided value and adds it to the list of nodes in the Graph instance. The add_edge method connects the two nodes by adding each node to the other's edges list. Please let me know if there's anything else you'd like to add or modify in the classes.
```

Great work as the navigator! We used ChatGPT as the driver to develop the `Graph`

data structure. Now, we’ll trade with ChatGPT and develop the code as the driver. We will develop code for BFS and DFS.

### ChatGPT as the Navigator

Let’s inform ChatGPT that we are going to switch roles.

Prompt:

```
Great work! With the `Graph` and `Node` classes prepared, we will swap places. I will be the driver and you will be the navigator. Please do not provide me code but you are welcome to provide pseudocode.
```

Response:

```
Sounds like a plan! I'll switch roles and provide you with pseudocode explanations for the logic behind certain tasks. Feel free to ask any questions or request clarification as we work through the process. Whenever you're ready to start, go ahead and let me know, and I'll be here to assist you as the navigator.
```

We will give ChatGPT a description of the intended goal. This gives ChatGPT the strategic overview and end goal to provide us with feedback.

Prompt:

```
This is the description:
For the `Graph` class, we will be constructing a Breadth-First Search (BFS) and Depth-First Search (DFS) algorithm. We will begin with BFS.
```

Response:

```
Absolutely, let's dive into implementing the Breadth-First Search (BFS) algorithm for the Graph class. Remember that I won't be providing you with the actual code, but I'll guide you through the logic and steps to implement BFS. If you have any questions or need further clarification, feel free to ask!
Here's a step-by-step guide to implementing BFS in pseudocode:
1. Create a Queue: BFS uses a queue to manage nodes during traversal. Initialize an empty queue.
2. Enqueue Start Node: Add the starting node to the queue.
3. Create a Visited Set: Maintain a set to track visited nodes.
4. While Queue is Not Empty:
- Dequeue a node from the front of the queue.
- If the node has not been visited:
- Mark the node as visited.
- Process the node (print, add to result list, etc.).
- Enqueue all unvisited neighbors of the node.
5. Return the Result: If needed, return the result of the traversal (e.g., a list of visited nodes).
Remember that BFS explores nodes level by level, starting from the source node. The use of a queue ensures that nodes are visited in the order they are enqueued, maintaining the breadth-first nature of the traversal.
Once you've implemented the BFS algorithm for the Graph class, we can test it to ensure it's working as expected. Let me know when you're ready to proceed, or if you have any questions about the pseudocode!
```

Prompt:

```
```py
class Graph:
def BFS():
queue = []
queue.append(self.nodes[0])
visited = []
while len(queue) > 0:
cur_node = self.nodes.pop(0)
if cur_node not in visited:
visited.append(cur_node)
for neighbor in cur_node.edges:
queue.append(neighbor)
```py
Is this correct?
```

Response:

```
Your implementation is close, but there are a couple of small adjustments needed to ensure correct behavior. Here's the corrected version of your BFS implementation:
class Graph:
def BFS(self):
queue = []
queue.append(self.nodes[0])
visited = []
while len(queue) > 0:
cur_node = queue.pop(0) # Dequeue from the front of the queue
if cur_node not in visited:
visited.append(cur_node)
for neighbor in cur_node.edges:
queue.append(neighbor)
return visited
In the corrected version:
1. I've added self as a parameter for the BFS method since it's a method within the class.
2. To dequeue a node from the queue, I used queue.pop(0) instead of self.nodes.pop(0).
Your implementation now correctly follows the steps of the BFS algorithm. It starts from the first node in the graph, explores its neighbors, and continues to explore the neighbors' neighbors in a breadth-first manner. The visited list keeps track of nodes that have already been processed during the traversal.
Now you can test this implementation to see if it works as expected. If everything looks good, we can proceed to implement the Depth-First Search (DFS) algorithm as well. Let me know if you have any questions or if you'd like to move forward!
```

As you can see, ChatGPT isn’t perfect and broke one of the rules, it provided code. We’ll iterate that we don’t want ChatGPT to provide the codebase and only feedback associated with the code.

Prompt:

```
Please do not provide the code, only pseudocode or a description of what needs to be corrected.
```

Response:

```
Apologies for that oversight. I understand your request. Here's a description of what needs to be corrected in your BFS implementation:
1. Dequeue Operation: When dequeuing a node from the queue, make sure to use queue.pop(0) instead of self.nodes.pop(0). The goal is to dequeue from the queue, not from the list of nodes in the graph.
With this adjustment, your BFS implementation should work correctly. If you have any questions or need further clarification, please feel free to ask.
```

Prompt:

```
```py
class Graph:
def BFS(self):
queue = []
queue.append(self.nodes[0])
visited = []
while len(queue) > 0:
cur_node = queue.pop(0)
if cur_node not in visited:
visited.append(cur_node)
for neighbor in cur_node.edges:
queue.append(neighbor)
```

Is this now correct?

```
Response:
```pseudo
Yes, your revised implementation looks correct! You've made the necessary adjustments, and now your BFS algorithm in pseudocode should work as expected. This implementation follows the steps of the Breadth-First Search algorithm, ensuring that nodes are traversed level by level, and visited nodes are properly marked to avoid revisiting them.
Now you can proceed with testing this implementation to verify its correctness and performance. If everything goes well, we can start discussing the implementation of the Depth-First Search (DFS) algorithm for the Graph class. If you have any questions or if there's anything else you'd like to cover, feel free to let me know!
```

Let’s do the same for DFS!

Prompt:

```
I'm ready to move onto DFS.
```

Response:

```
Great! Let's dive into implementing the Depth-First Search (DFS) algorithm for the Graph class. As before, I'll guide you through the logic and steps to implement DFS in pseudocode. If you have any questions or need further clarification, don't hesitate to ask!
Here's a step-by-step guide to implementing DFS in pseudocode:
1. Create a Stack: DFS uses a stack to manage nodes during traversal. Initialize an empty stack.
2. Push Start Node: Push the starting node onto the stack.
3. Create a Visited Set: Maintain a set to track visited nodes.
4. While Stack is Not Empty:
- Pop a node from the top of the stack.
- If the node has not been visited:
- Mark the node as visited.
- Process the node (print, add to result list, etc.).
- Push all unvisited neighbors of the node onto the stack.
5. Return the Result: If needed, return the result of the traversal (e.g., a list of visited nodes).
DFS explores nodes deeply before backtracking, using a stack to manage the order of exploration. The use of a stack ensures that nodes are visited in a last-in-first-out order, maintaining the depth-first nature of the traversal.
Once you're ready, go ahead and start implementing the DFS algorithm for the Graph class based on this pseudocode. If you encounter any challenges or have questions along the way, feel free to ask!
```

Prompt:

```
```py
class Graph:
def BFS(self):
stack = []
stack.append(self.nodes[0])
visited = []
while len(stack) > 0:
cur_node = stack.pop(len(stack)-1)
if cur_node not in visited:
visited.append(cur_node)
for neighbor in cur_node.edges:
stack.append(neighbor)
```py
Is this correct for DFS?
```

Response:

```
Your provided code looks close, but there are a couple of adjustments needed to make it accurate for the Depth-First Search (DFS) algorithm. Here's the corrected version of your DFS implementation:
class Graph:
def DFS(self):
stack = []
stack.append(self.nodes[0])
visited = []
while len(stack) > 0:
cur_node = stack.pop() # Pop from the top of the stack
if cur_node not in visited:
visited.append(cur_node)
for neighbor in cur_node.edges:
stack.append(neighbor)
return visited
In this corrected version:
1. The pop() function without an index argument will pop from the top of the stack, which is the desired behavior for DFS.
2. The check for len(stack) > 0 is fine, as it ensures the loop continues as long as there are nodes in the stack.
Your implementation now accurately follows the steps of the Depth-First Search algorithm. It starts from the first node in the graph, explores its neighbors deeply, and backtracks only when all reachable nodes from the current path have been visited.
Feel free to test this implementation to make sure it's working as intended. If everything looks good, you've now successfully implemented both BFS and DFS for the Graph class! If you have any more questions or if you'd like to discuss anything else, please let me know.
```

Prompt:

```
Please don't provide the code. Only a description or pseudocode of corrections.
```

Response:

```
I apologize for the oversight. Here's a description of the corrections needed for your DFS implementation:
1. Pop Operation: When popping a node from the stack, you can use stack.pop() to pop from the top of the stack. No need to provide an index argument.
2. Visited Check: You correctly check if the current node is not in the visited list before processing it.
With these adjustments, your DFS implementation should accurately follow the steps of the Depth-First Search algorithm. If you have any further questions or need clarification, please feel free to ask!
```

Prompt:

```
```py
class Graph:
def BFS(self):
stack = []
stack.append(self.nodes[0])
visited = []
while len(stack) > 0:
cur_node = stack.pop()
if cur_node not in visited:
visited.append(cur_node)
for neighbor in cur_node.edges:
stack.append(neighbor)
```py
Is this now correct?
```

Response:

```
Yes, your updated implementation now accurately represents the Depth-First Search (DFS) algorithm! Your provided code follows the DFS process correctly, exploring nodes deeply before backtracking. It uses a stack to manage the traversal order and maintains a set of visited nodes to prevent revisiting.
With the changes you've made, your DFS implementation should work as intended. You can proceed to test it and make sure it behaves correctly for various graphs.
If you're ready to move on or if you have any more questions or topics you'd like to cover, feel free to let me know!
```

### Conclusion

Great work! Using ChatGPT as a pair programming partner, we were able to implement the graph data structure and the associated BFS and DFS search algorithms. We practiced the driver-navigator pair programming technique, being both the driver and navigator. With your resulting codebase, try executing the code to validate it runs as expected.