This lesson introduced some methods for combining multiple DataFrames:

  • Creating a DataFrame made by matching the common columns of two DataFrames is called a merge
  • We can specify which columns should be matches by using the keyword arguments left_on and right_on
  • We can combine DataFrames whose rows don’t all match using left, right, and outer merges and the how keyword argument
  • We can stack or concatenate DataFrames with the same columns using pd.concat



Cool T-Shirts Inc. just created a website for ordering their products. They want you to analyze two datasets for them:

  • visits contains information on all visits to their landing page
  • checkouts contains all users who began to checkout on their website

Use print to inspect each DataFrame.


We want to know the amount of time from a user’s initial visit to the website to when they start to check out.

Use merge to combine visits and checkouts and save it to the variable v_to_c.


In order to calculate the time between visiting and checking out, define a column of v_to_c called time that calculates the difference between checkout_time and visit_time for every row.


Use .mean() to calculate the average time to checkout and print that value to the terminal.

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