There are many more array methods than just .push() and .pop(). You can read about all of the array methods that exist on the Mozilla Developer Network (MDN) array documentation.

.pop() and .push() mutate the array on which they’re called. However, there are times that we don’t want to mutate the original array and we can use non-mutating array methods. Be sure to check MDN to understand the behavior of the method you are using.

Some arrays methods that are available to JavaScript developers include: .join(), .slice(), .splice(), .shift(), .unshift(), and .concat() amongst many others. Using these built-in methods make it easier to do some common tasks when working with arrays.

Below, we will explore some methods that we have not learned yet. We will use these methods to edit a grocery list. As you complete the steps, you can consult the MDN documentation to learn what each method does!



Use the .shift() method to remove the first item from the array groceryList.

Log the new groceryList to the console.

Read about .shift() at MDN’s shift documentation.


Under the code added in step 1, use the .unshift() method to add 'popcorn' to the beginning of your grocery list.

After calling .unshift() on groceryList, log groceryList to the console.

You may wish to delete the console.log() statement from the previous step.

Read about .unshift() at MDN’s unshift documentation.


You’re in a hurry so you decide to ask a friend to help you with your grocery shopping. You want him to pick up the 'bananas', 'coffee beans', and 'brown rice'.

Under the code you added for step 2, use .slice() to provide your friend with a list of these three things.

Log this part of the list to the console. Unlike the two previous checkpoints, you should do both of these steps in one line.

Read about .slice() at MDN’s slice documentation.


After calling .slice() on groceryList, log the grocery list to the console one more time.

Notice that the groceryList array still contains the same items it had in Step 2. That means .slice() is non-mutating! You can confirm this in the link in the previous step.


Let’s find the index of a particular element in groceryList using .indexOf().

Call .indexOf() on groceryList to find the index of the element 'pasta' and save the returned value to a const variable named pastaIndex.

Then log pastaIndex to the console. (You may remove the other console.log() statements to declutter the terminal.)

Read about .indexOf() at MDN’s indexOf documentation.

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