The Java programming language has static typing. Java programs will not compile if a variable is assigned a value of an incorrect type. This is a bug, specifically a type declaration bug.

Bugs are dangerous! They cause our code to crash, or produce incorrect results. Static typing helps because bugs are caught during programming rather than during execution of the code.

The program will not compile if the declared type of the variable does not match the type of the assigned value:

int greeting = "Hello World";

The String "Hello World" cannot be held in a variable of type int.

For the example above, we see an error in the console at compilation:

error: incompatible types: String cannot be converted to int int greeting = "Hello World";

When bugs are not caught at compilation, they interrupt execution of the code by causing runtime errors. The program will crash.

Java’s static typing helps programmers avoid runtime errors, and thus have much safer code that is free from bugs.



In the Mess.java file, we have declared a bunch of variables with the wrong type. Try to compile the file using the command:

javac Mess.java

Change the types of the variables so that they correspond with the type of the assignment values.

For example, year is assigned 2001, so it should be an int.


Compile the file again. Look at how it compiles with no errors now!

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