Reference Fundamentals
References vs. Values

To better grasp the idea of reference types, let’s look at the other kind of type: value types. While reference-type variables refer to a place in memory, value-type variables hold the actual data.

int is a value type, so the variable num holds the value 6:

int num = 6;

Reference types, on the other hand, refer to a location in memory. Every class is a reference type, so the variable diss refers to a location in memory that has the Dissertation object:

Dissertation diss = new Dissertation(50);

Every “primitive” data type is a value type, including:

  • int
  • double
  • bool
  • char

Revisiting our metaphor: a reference is like directions to a house, which “points” to a house. It isn’t the actual house. A value type is the house itself!

You might have noticed that string is missing here. It works a bit differently, so it will be covered in a later lesson.


The diagram to the right represents a computer’s memory:

  • An object is stored in the first memory block
  • diss1 hold a reference to the first memory block
  • diss2 also holds a reference to the first memory block
  • num refers to a value in the fourth memory block

Notice that the object takes up more memory than either reference (size is represented by the width of the slot), and that changing the object would affect both diss1 and diss2.

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