It seems like our middleware was successful — it logged out the type of each request received. But then the response stopped there! What happened? We mentioned that most of Express’s functionality is chaining middleware. This chain of middleware is referred to as the middleware stack.

The middleware stack is processed in the order they appear in the application file, such that middleware defined later happens after middleware defined before. It’s important to note that this is regardless of method — an app.use() that occurs after an app.get() will get called after the app.get(). Observe the following code:

app.use((req, res, next) => { console.log("A sorcerer approaches!"); next(); }); app.get('/magic/:spellname', (req, res, next) => { console.log("The sorcerer is casting a spell!"); next(); }); app.get('/magic/:spellname', (req, res, next) => { console.log(`The sorcerer has cast ${req.params.spellname}`); res.status(200).send(); }); app.get('/magic/:spellname', (req, res, next) => { console.log("The sorcerer is leaving!"); }); // Accessing http://localhost:4001/magic/fireball // Console Output: // "A sorcerer approaches!" // "The sorcerer is casting a spell!" // "The sorcerer has cast fireball"

In the above code, the routes are called in the order that they appear in the file, provided the previous route called next() and thus passed control to the next middleware. We can see that the final matching call was not printed. This is because the previous middleware did not invoke the next() function to run the following middleware.

An Express middleware is a function with three parameters: (req, res, next). The sequence is expressed by a set of callback functions invoked progressively after each middleware performs its purpose. The third argument to a middleware function, next, should get explicitly called as the last part of the middleware’s body. This will hand off the processing of the request and the construction of the response to the next middleware in the stack.



Add a call to next after your logging statement so that the middleware will be executed before moving on to your routes.

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