In Python, there are three common types of function arguments:

  • Positional arguments: arguments that are called by their position in the function definition.
  • Keyword arguments: arguments that are called by their name.
  • Default arguments: arguments that are given default values.

To recap, here is what each of these argument types looks like:

  • Positional Arguments

    def print_name(first_name, last_name): print(first_name, last_name) print_name('Jiho', 'Baggins')

    Here, first_name will be mapped to 'Jiho' while last_name will be mapped to 'Baggins' due to the position of the arguments when calling the function.

  • Keyword Arguments

    def print_name(first_name, last_name): print(first_name, last_name) print_name(last_name='Baggins', first_name='Jiho')

    Here, we are using the parameter names first_name and last_name as keyword arguments in the function call. Notice the order of the arguments does not matter since they are assigned a specific name.

  • Default arguments

    def print_name(first_name='Jiho', last_name='Baggins'): print(first_name, last_name) print_name()

    Here, in the function definition, we assign default values to the parameters. This means we can call our function without providing any arguments because they will have a value to fall back onto.

While these are the most common argument types, in this lesson, we will explore what happens when we want to make our function arguments more flexible by taking a varying number of arguments.

Before we jump into learning more about variable argument types, let’s review the most common types to get warmed up.



Our friend Jiho is trying to get into the restaurant business. They asked us to build a simple table assignment program to help manage which customer is assigned to each table in the restaurant. Jiho wants to store not only the name of the customer for the table but also if they hold a VIP status (earned by visiting the restaurant frequently).

Our table information will be stored in a dictionary called tables (already defined in our editor) that is structured in the following format:

tablenumber: [name, vip_status]

Take a second to examine the dictionary and run the code to move on!


Jiho needs a way to assign new customers to the existing tables as they come in for their reservations. Define a new function called assign_table that will take three arguments (in this exact order):

  1. table_number
  2. name
  3. vip_status

Our function assign_table should then use the following arguments to assign a new customer to a table in our dictionary tables. Use the table_number as the key and a list containing name and vip_status as the value.


Looks like our first reservation just came in!

Call our function assign_table using positional arguments for a customer with the name of 'Yoni' to the table 6. Yoni does not have VIP status and thus should have the value False.

Optionally, print tables to check that the assignment was successful.


Looks like another customer came in.

Call assign_table using keyword arguments (in any order) to add the new customer with the following details:

  • Name: 'Martha'
  • Table: 3
  • VIP Status: True

Make sure to include the keywords in your call to the function!

Optionally, print tables to check that the assignment was successful.


Since most customers are new at the restaurant, we want to use a default value of False for any new table assignment.

Modify the function definition of assign_table and give the parameter vip_status a default value of False.


A new customer just arrived. Add the customer to a table using the following information via positional arguments:

  • Name: 'Karla'
  • Table Number: 4

Karla is not a VIP, so we do not need to provide an additional argument since we already have a default value of False in our function definition.

Lastly, print the tables dictionary, to see the final table assignments.

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