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There are three string methods that can change the casing of a string. These are .lower(), .upper(), and .title().

  • .lower() returns the string with all lowercase characters.
  • .upper() returns the string with all uppercase characters.
  • .title() returns the string in title case, which means the first letter of each word is capitalized.

Here’s an example of .lower() in action:

favorite_song = 'SmOoTH' favorite_song_lowercase = favorite_song.lower() print(favorite_song_lowercase) # => 'smooth'

Every character was changed to lowercase! It’s important to remember that string methods can only create new strings, they do not change the original string.

print(favorite_song) # => 'SmOoTH'

See, it’s still the same! These string methods are great for sanitizing user input and standardizing the formatting of your strings.



You’re a programmer working for an organization that is trying to digitize and store poetry called Preserve the Verse.

You’ve been given two strings, the title of a poem and its author, and have been asked to reformat them slightly to fit the conventions of the organization’s database.

Make poem_title have title case and save it to poem_title_fixed.


Print poem_title and poem_title_fixed.

How did the string change?


The organization’s database also needs the author’s name to be uppercase only.

Make poem_author uppercase and save it to poem_author_fixed.


Print poem_author and poem_author_fixed.

Again, how did the string change?

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