This lesson introduced some methods for combining multiple data frames:

  • Creating a data frame made by matching the common columns of two data frames is called a join
  • We can specify which columns should be matched by using the by argument
  • We can combine data frames whose rows don’t all match using left, right, and full joins
  • We can stack or concatenate data frames with the same columns using bind_rows()



Cool T-Shirts Inc. just created a website for ordering their products. They want you to analyze two datasets for them:

  • visits contains information on all visits to their landing page
  • checkouts contains all users who began to checkout on their website

Use head() to inspect each data frame.


We want to know the amount of time from a user’s initial visit to the website to when they start to check out.

Use inner_join to combine visits and checkouts and save it to the variable v_to_c. View v_to_c.


In order to calculate the time between visiting and checking out, define a column of v_to_c called time by pasting the following code into notebook.Rmd:

v_to_c <- v_to_c %>% mutate(time = checkout_time - visit_time) v_to_c

To get the average time to checkout, paste the following code into notebook.Rmd:

avg_time_to_check <- v_to_c %>% summarize(mean_time = mean(time)) avg_time_to_check

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