Great work! By using optionals, you can make sure to handle values that might be nil. A value might be nil because the user didn’t provide a response. A value might also be nil because we might not have a good answer to a question (e.g. what’s the biggest number in an empty list).

In this lesson you learned how to:

  • Define optionals
  • Force unwrap optionals using the ! operator
  • Bind optionals using if let statements
  • Bind optionals using guard statements
  • Use the nil-coalescing operator ?? to provide default values
  • Chain optionals using the ? operator
  • Define functions that take in and return optionals

Optionals are anything but optional for writing great Swift code!


Swift has lots of built-in methods that return optional types. Take a look at the examples here to see when you could work with more nil values.

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