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Manipulation
ls, revisited

The ls command lists all files and directories in the working directory. We can use ls as is, or attach an option. Options modify the behavior of commands.

For example:

ls -a

The command above displays the contents of the working directory in more detail. This command displays all the files and directories, including those starting with a dot (.). Files starting with a dot are normally hidden, and don’t appear when using ls alone.

The -a is called an option. Options modify the behavior of commands.

In addition to -a, the ls command has several more options. Here are three common ones:

  • -a - lists all contents, including hidden files and directories
  • -l - lists all contents of a directory in long format, as well as the file permissions
  • -t - orders files and directories by the time they were last modified.

Let’s practice using these options below.

Instructions

1.

In the terminal, type:

ls -a

Do you see the differences between the outputs of both ls and ls -a?

2.

Then type

ls -t

Do you see the differences between the outputs of both ls -a and ls -t?

3.

In the terminal, type

ls -l

Click Next to find out what these columns mean.

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