Congratulations! You learned how to use the command line to redirect standard input and standard output. What can we generalize so far?

  • Redirection reroutes standard input, standard output, and standard error.

  • The common redirection commands are:

    • > redirects standard output of a command to a file, overwriting previous content.
    • >> redirects standard output of a command to a file, appending new content to old content.
    • < redirects standard input to a command.
    • | redirects standard output of a command to another command.
  • A number of other commands are powerful when combined with redirection commands:

    • sort: sorts lines of text alphabetically.
    • uniq: filters duplicate, adjacent lines of text.
    • grep: searches for a text pattern and outputs it.
    • sed : searches for a text pattern, modifies it, and outputs it.


Feel free to navigate through this file system and play around with redirection commands to familiarize yourself further.

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