# Exploring Data

Print Cheatsheet

### Cells in Excel can be filled formulaically

A formula begins with the = sign followed by an expression using built-in Excel functions and standard mathematical operations.

### Cell References

Formulas in Excel can reference values in other cells by stating the column letter followed by the row number (e.g. A2). ### Formula Recalculation

Formulas in Excel will automatically recalculate if the data in the referenced cell is altered.

### Dragging Formulas in Excel

When a formula in Excel is dragged into other cells, by default any row and column references are automatically incremented relative to the original cell containing the formula. ### Using dollar signs in Excel

If dollar signs are placed before the column and/or row of a referenced cell (e.g. \$A2, A\$2, or A\$2\$), Excel will not update the column and/or row respectively of the cell reference when the formula is dragged into other cells.

### Sorting in Excel

Excel can sort tables by date or time, numerically, and alphabetically. ### Filtering in Excel

Excel can filter tables to only show rows containing certain values or ranges.

### Pivot Tables

A pivot table restructures a dataset by grouping data points categorically and summarizing values within each category.

### Pivot Table Labels

The columns and rows of a pivot table are labeled using the unique values of zero or more columns of the source dataset.

### Pivot Table Values

The values of a pivot table are calculated using standard summary statistics including maximum, minimum, average, count, and standard deviation.

### Updating Pivot Tables

Pivot tables in Excel need to be manually refreshed when the source data changes.