# Summarizing a Single Feature

Learn how to explore a single feature in a dataset using summary statistics and simple data visualizations.

Start## Key Concepts

Review core concepts you need to learn to master this subject

Pandas .describe() method

Central tendency statistics

Spread statistics

Visualize the distribution of a quantitative/continuous feature

Summary statistics for categorical data

Visualizing categorical data

Pandas .describe() method

Pandas .describe() method

`df.describe(include = 'all')`

The pandas method, `.describe()`

provides summary statistics for all features in a dataset. Setting `include = 'all'`

includes summary statistics for both quantitative and categorical features.

- 1Before diving into formal analysis with a dataset, it is often helpful to perform some initial investigations of the data through [exploratory data analysis (EDA)](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exp…
- 2For quantitative variables, we often want to describe the
*central tendency*, or the “typical” value of a variable. For example, what is the typical cost of rent in New York City? There are severa… - 3The
*spread*of a quantitative variable describes the amount of variability. This is important because it provides context for measures of central tendency. For example, if there is a lot of variab… - 4While summary statistics are certainly helpful for exploring and quantifying a feature, we might find it hard to wrap our minds around a bunch of numbers. This is why data visualization is such a p…
- 5When it comes to categorical variables, the measures of central tendency and spread that worked for describing numeric variables, like mean and standard deviation, generally becomes unsuitable when…
- 6A counts table is one approach for exploring categorical variables, but sometimes it is useful to also look at the proportion of values in each category. For example, knowing that there are 3,539 r…
- 7For categorical variables, bar charts and pie charts are common options for visualizing the count (or proportion) of values in each category. They can also convey the relative frequencies of each c…

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