A formula begins with the = sign followed by an expression using built-in Excel functions and standard mathematical operations.
Formulas in Excel can reference values in other cells by stating the column letter followed by the row number (e.g. A2).
Formulas in Excel will automatically recalculate if the data in the referenced cell is altered.
When a formula in Excel is dragged into other cells, by default any row and column references are automatically incremented relative to the original cell containing the formula.
If dollar signs are placed before the column and/or row of a referenced cell (e.g. $A2, A$2, or A$2$), Excel will not update the column and/or row respectively of the cell reference when the formula is dragged into other cells.
Excel can sort tables by date or time, numerically, and alphabetically.
Excel can filter tables to only show rows containing certain values or ranges.
A pivot table restructures a dataset by grouping data points categorically and summarizing values within each category.
The columns and rows of a pivot table are labeled using the unique values of zero or more columns of the source dataset.
The values of a pivot table are calculated using standard summary statistics including maximum, minimum, average, count, and standard deviation.
Pivot tables in Excel need to be manually refreshed when the source data changes.