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MAX() Aggregate Function

The MAX() aggregate function takes the name of a column as an argument and returns the largest value in a column. The given query will return the largest value from the amount column.

SELECT MAX(amount)
FROM transactions;

SELECT Statement

The SELECT * statement returns all columns from the provided table in the result set. The given query will fetch all columns and records (rows) from the movies table.

FROM movies;


The ORDER BY clause can be used to sort the result set by a particular column either alphabetically or numerically. It can be ordered in two ways:

  • DESC is a keyword used to sort the results in descending order.
  • ASC is a keyword used to sort the results in ascending order (default).
FROM contacts
ORDER BY birth_date DESC;

COUNT() Aggregate Function

The COUNT() aggregate function returns the total number of rows that match the specified criteria. For instance, to find the total number of employees who have less than 5 years of experience, the given query can be used.

Note: A column name of the table can also be used instead of *. Unlike COUNT(*), this variation COUNT(column) will not count NULL values in that column.

FROM employees
WHERE experience < 5;


Unique values of a column can be selected using a DISTINCT query. For a table contact_details having five rows in which the city column contains Chicago, Madison, Boston, Madison, and Denver, the given query would return:

  • Chicago
  • Madison
  • Boston
  • Denver
FROM contact_details;

LIMIT Clause

The LIMIT clause is used to narrow, or limit, a result set to the specified number of rows. The given query will limit the result set to 5 rows.

FROM movies


The GROUP BY clause will group records in a result set by identical values in one or more columns. It is often used in combination with aggregate functions to query information of similar records. The GROUP BY clause can come after FROM or WHERE but must come before any ORDER BY or LIMIT clause.

The given query will count the number of movies per rating.

SELECT rating,
FROM movies
GROUP BY rating;

MIN() Aggregate Function

The MIN() aggregate function returns the smallest value in a column. For instance, to find the smallest value of the amount column from the table named transactions, the given query can be used.

SELECT MIN(amount)
FROM transactions;

CASE statement in SQL

The SQL CASE statement enables control flow in SQL. It allows for one or more conditions (WHEN condition THEN result) and an optional default case (ELSE). The query above will provide each rating a value for the specified ranges within the result set.

SELECT name,
WHEN rating > 8 THEN "Excellent"
WHEN rating > 5 THEN "Good"
WHEN rating > 3 THEN "Okay"
ELSE "Bad"
FROM movies;


The HAVING clause is used to further filter the result set groups provided by the GROUP BY clause. HAVING is often used with aggregate functions to filter the result set groups based on an aggregate property. The given query will select only the records (rows) from only years where more than 5 movies were released per year.

The HAVING clause must always come after a GROUP BY clause but must come before any ORDER BY or LIMIT clause.

SELECT year,
FROM movies

WHERE Clause

The WHERE clause is used to filter records (rows) that match a certain condition. The given query will select all records where the pub_year equals 2017.

SELECT title
FROM library
WHERE pub_year = 2017;

ROUND() Function

The ROUND() function will round a number value to a specified number of places. It takes two arguments: a number, and a number of decimal places. It can be combined with other aggregate functions, as shown in the given query. This query will calculate the average rating of movies from 2015, rounding to 2 decimal places.

SELECT year,
ROUND(AVG(rating), 2)
FROM movies
WHERE year = 2015;

Outer Join

An outer join will combine rows from different tables even if the join condition is not met. In a LEFT JOIN, every row in the left table is returned in the result set, and if the join condition is not met, then NULL values are used to fill in the columns from the right table.

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table1
LEFT JOIN table2
ON table1.column_name = table2.column_name;

Inner Join

The JOIN clause allows for the return of results from more than one table by joining them together with other results based on common column values specified using an ON clause. INNER JOIN is the default JOIN and it will only return results matching the condition specified by ON.

FROM books
JOIN authors
ON books.author_id =;