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Conditionals

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Types of Conditionals

A conditional in C can be written using if, else-if, else, ternary operators, and switch statements.

if Statements

An if statement tests an expression and executes code based on its truth.

if (x == 3) {
printf("x is 3!");
}

else-if Statements

An else-if statement tests an expression and must come after an existing if or else-if.

if (x > 3) {
printf("x is greater than 3");
} else if (x < 3) {
printf("x is less than 3");
}

else Statements

An else statement is accessed when all preceding if and/or else-if statements return false.

if (x > 3) {
printf("x is greater than 3");
} else if (x < 3) {
printf("x is less than 3");
} else {
printf("x equals 3");
}

Dangling else Statement

A dangling else statement results when it’s ambiguous which conditional the else statement is attached to.

Ternary Operators

A ternary operator is a condensed if-else statement.

min = a < b ? a : b; // This is the same as the if-else below
if (a < b) {
min = a;
} else {
min = b;
}

switch Statements

A switch statement is a condensed series of cascading else statements. It tests a value and compares it against multiple cases.

switch (grade) {
case 9:
printf("Freshman\n");
break;
case 10:
printf("Sophomore\n");
break;
case 11:
printf("Junior\n");
break;
case 12:
printf("Senior\n");
break;
default:
printf("Invalid\n");
break;
}

Operators and Conditionals

A conditional in C can use relational operators such as &&, ||, and ! to compare values and test multiple expressions.