## Key Concepts

Review core concepts you need to learn to master this subject

### `if` Statement

```if (a == 10) { // Code goes here }```

An `if` statement is used to test an expression for truth.

• If the condition evaluates to `true`, then the code within the block is executed; otherwise, it will be skipped.

### Relational Operators

```if (a == 10) { // Code goes here }```

Relational operators are used to compare two values and return `true` or `false` depending on the comparison:

• `==` equal to

• `!=` not equal to

• `>` greater than

• `<` less than

• `>=` greater than or equal to

• `<=` less than or equal to

### `else` Clause

```if (a == 10) { // Code goes here }```

An `else` clause can be added to an `if` statement.

• If the condition evaluates to `true`, code in the `if` part is executed.
• If the condition evaluates to `false`, code in the `else` part is executed.

### `switch` Statement

```if (a == 10) { // Code goes here }```

A `switch` statement provides a means of checking an expression against various `case`s. If there is a match, the code within starts to execute. The `break` keyword can be used to terminate a case.

`default` is executed when no case matches.

### `else if` Statement

```if (a == 10) { // Code goes here }```

One or more `else if` statements can be added in between the `if` and `else` to provide additional condition(s) to check.

### Logical Operators

```if (a == 10) { // Code goes here }```

Logical operators can be used to combine two different conditions.

• `&&` requires both to be true (`and`)
• `||` requires either to be true (`or`)
• `!` negates the result (`not`)
Conditionals & Logic
Lesson 1 of 2
1. 1
Every program we’ve seen so far has only had one possible path of execution — they all execute line by line, from top to bottom. And every time you run one of those programs, it gives you the same …
2. 2
Before we dive deep into the syntax of the if statement, let’s do a demo! Here, we have coinflip.cpp program that simulates a coin toss: - 50% of the time, it’s Heads. - 50% of the time, i…
3. 3
An if statement is used to test an expression for truth and execute some code based on it. Here’s a simple form of the if statement: if (condition) { some code } If the condition is true, …
4. 4
When writing conditional statements, sometimes we need to use different types of operators to compare values. These operators are called relational operators. To have a condition, we need relati…
5. 5
We can also add an else clause to an if statement to provide code that will only be executed if the condition is false. Here’s a form of an if statement that includes an else clause: if (condition…
6. 6
So what happens if you want more than two possible outcomes? This is where else if comes in! if (condition) { some code } else if (condition) { some code } else { some code } The el…
7. 7
Now that we know how if, else if, else work, we can write programs that have multiple outcomes. Programs with multiple outcomes are so common that C++ provides a special statement for it… the swi…
8. 8
Congratulations! 🙌 Here are some of the major concepts: - An if statement checks a condition and will execute a task if that condition evaluates to true. - if / else statements make binary decisi…
1. 1
Often, when we are trying to create a control flow for our program, we’ll encounter situations where the logic cannot be satisfied with a single condition. Logical operators are used to combine …
2. 2
The and logical operator is denoted by &&. It returns true if the condition on the left and the condition on the right are both true. Otherwise, it returns false. Here’s the truth table: | a …
3. 3
The or logical operator is denoted by ||. It returns true when the condition on the left is true _or_ the condition on the right is true. Only one of them needs to be true. Here’s the truth table…
4. 4
The not logical operator is denoted by !. It reverses the bool outcome of the expression that immediately follows. Here’s the truth table: | a | !a | | — | — | | false | true | | true | fals…
5. 5
Awesome! In this mini-lesson, we’ve added more operators to our toolbox: - &&: the and logical operator - ||: the or logical operator - !: the not logical operator

## What you'll create

Portfolio projects that showcase your new skills ## How you'll master it

Stress-test your knowledge with quizzes that help commit syntax to memory 