Scanner class is used to read user input in a Java program. It requires declaration within a program before a user of the program is prompted to input values.
IOExceptions refer to any errors that a program may encounter that are related to the input or output of a Java program.
Java programs must first be compiled into bytes, and only then can they be run using the terminal or command prompt.
FileInputStream is used to read data from a file into the program.
FileOutputStream is used to output data from a program into a file on your computer.
In order to print output using a Java program, a developer can use the following three commands:
System.out.print(): prints in the same line a when a program is running
System.out.println(): prints output in a new line
System.out.printf(): prints formatted string. It allows for the use of format specifiers such as “%s” or “%c” that can be used to insert variable values