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Collections

Immutable Lists

An immutable list represents a group of elements with read-only operations.

It can be declared with the term listOf, followed by a pair of parentheses containing elements that are separated by commas.

var programmingLanguages = listOf("C#", "Java", "Kotlin", "Ruby")

Mutable Lists

A mutable list represents a collection of ordered elements that possess read and write functionalities.

It can be declared with the term, mutableListOf followed by a pair of parentheses containing elements that are separated by commas.

var fruits = mutableListOf("Orange", "Apple", "Banana", "Mango")

Accessing List Elements

In order to retrieve an element from a list, we can reference its numerical position or index using square bracket notation.

Note: Remember that the first element of a list starts at 0.

var cars = listOf("BMW", "Ferrari", "Volvo", "Tesla") println(cars[2]) // Prints: Volvo

The Size Property

The size property is used to determine the number of elements that exist in a collection.

var worldContinents = listOf("Asia", "Africa", "North America", "South America", "Antarctica", "Europe", "Australia") println(worldContinents.size) // Prints: 7

List Operations

The list collection supports various operations in the form of built-in functions that can be performed on its elements.

Some functions perform read and write operations, whereas others perform read-only operations.

The functions that perform read and write operations can only be used on mutable lists while read-only operations can be performed on both mutable and immutable lists.

var seas = listOf("Black Sea", "Caribbean Sea", "North Sea") println(seas.contains("North Sea")) // Prints: true // The contains() function performs a read operation on any list and determines if an element exists. seas.add("Baltic Sea") // Error: Can't perform write operation on immutable list // The add() function can only be called on a mutable list thus the code above throws an error.

Immutable Sets

An immutable set represents a collection of unique elements in an unordered fashion whose contents cannot be altered throughout a program.

It is declared with the term, setOf, followed by a pair of parentheses holding unique values.

var primaryColors = setOf("Red", "Blue", "Yellow")

Mutable Sets

A mutable set represents a collection of ordered elements that possess both read and write functionalities.

It is declared with the term, mutableSetOf, followed by a pair of parentheses holding unique values.

var womenInTech = mutableSetOf("Ada Lovelace", "Grace Hopper", "Radia Perlman", "Sister Mary Kenneth Keller")

Accessing Set Elements

Elements in a set can be accessed using the elementAt() or elementAtOrNull() functions.

The elementAt() function gets appended onto a set name and returns the element at the specified position within the parentheses.

The elementAtOrNull() function is a safer variation of the elementAt() function and returns null if the position is out of bounds as opposed to throwing an error.

var companies = setOf("Facebook", "Apple", "Netflix", "Google") println(companies.elementAt(3)) // Prints: Google println(companies.elementAt(4)) // Returns and Error println(companies.elementAtOrNull(4)) // Prints: null

Immutable Maps

An immutable Map represents a collection of entries that cannot be altered throughout a program.

It is declared with the term, mapOf, followed by a pair of parentheses. Within the parentheses, each key should be linked to its corresponding value with the to keyword, and each entry should be separated by a comma.

var averageTemp = mapOf("winter" to 35, "spring" to 60, "summer" to 85, "fall" to 55)

Mutable Maps

A mutable map represents a collection of entries that possess read and write functionalities. Entries can be added, removed, or updated in a mutable map.

A mutable map can be declared with the term, mutableMapOf, followed by a pair of parentheses holding key-value pairs.

var europeanDomains = mutableMapOf("Germany" to "de", "Slovakia" to "sk", "Hungary" to "hu", "Norway" to "no")

Retrieving Map Keys and Values

Keys and values within a map can be retrieved using the .keys and .values properties.

The .keys property returns a list of key elements, whereas the .values property returns a list of value elements.

To retrieve a single value associated with a key, the shorthand, [key], syntax can be used.

var oscarWinners = mutableMapOf("Parasite" to "Bong Joon-ho", "Green Book" to "Jim Burke", "The Shape Of Water" to "Guillermo del Toro") println(oscarWinners.keys) // Prints: [Parasite, Green Book, The Shape Of Water] println(oscarWinners.values) // Prints: [Bong Joon-ho, Jim Burke, Guillermo del Toro] println(oscarWinners["Parasite"]) // Prints: Bong Joon-ho

Adding and Removing Map Entries

An entry can be added to a mutable map using the put() function. Oppositely, an entry can be removed from a mutable map using the remove() function.

The put() function accepts a key and a value separated by a comma.

The remove() function accepts a key and removes the entry associated with that key.

var worldCapitals = mutableMapOf("United States" to "Washington D.C.", "Germany" to "Berlin", "Mexico" to "Mexico City", "France" to "Paris") worldCapitals.put("Brazil", "Brasilia") println(worldCapitals) // Prints: {United States=Washington D.C., Germany=Berlin, Mexico=Mexico City, France=Paris, Brazil=Brasilia} worldCapitals.remove("Germany") println(worldCapitals) // Prints: {United States=Washington D.C., Mexico=Mexico City, France=Paris, Brazil=Brasilia}

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