Python type() function
type() function returns the data type of the argument passed to it.
a = 1 print type(a) # <type 'int'> a = 1.1 print type(a) # <type 'float'> a = 'b' print type(a) # <type 'str'> a = None print type(a) # <type 'NoneType'>
In Python, a class is a template for a data type. A class can be defined using the
# Defining a class class Animal: def __init__(self, name, number_of_legs): self.name = name self.number_of_legs = number_of_legs
Instantiate Python Class
In Python, a class needs to be instantiated before use.
As an analogy, a class can be thought of as a blueprint (Car), and an instance is an actual implementation of the blueprint (Ferrari).
class Car: "This is an empty class" pass # Class Instantiation ferrari = Car()
__main__ in Python
__main__ is an identifier used to reference the current file context. When a module is read from standard input, a script, or from an interactive prompt, its
__name__ is set equal to
Suppose we create an instance of a class called
CoolClass. Printing the
type() of the instance will result in:
This means that the class
CoolClass was defined in the current script file.
Python Class Variables
In Python, class variables are defined outside of all methods and have the same value for every instance of the class.
Class variables are accessed with the
class my_class: class_variable = "I am a Class Variable!" x = my_class() y = my_class() print(x.class_variable) #I am a Class Variable! print(y.class_variable) #I am a Class Variable!
Python class methods
In Python, methods are functions that are defined as part of a class. It is common practice that the first argument of any method that is part of a class is the actual object calling the method. This argument is usually called self.
# Dog class class Dog: # Method of the class def bark(self): print("Ham-Ham") # Create a new instance charlie = Dog() # Call the method charlie.bark() # This will output "Ham-Ham"
Python dir() function
In Python, the built-in
dir() function, without any argument, returns a list of all the attributes in the current scope.
With an object as argument,
dir() tries to return all valid object attributes.
class Employee: def __init__(self, name): self.name = name def print_name(self): print("Hi, I'm " + self.name) print(dir()) # ['Employee', '__builtins__', '__doc__', '__file__', '__name__', '__package__', 'new_employee'] print(dir(Employee)) # ['__doc__', '__init__', '__module__', 'print_name']
__repr__() method is used to tell Python what the string representation of the class should be. It can only have one parameter,
self, and it should return a string.
class Employee: def __init__(self, name): self.name = name def __repr__(self): return self.name john = Employee('John') print(john) # John
Python init method
In Python, the
.__init__() method is used to initialize a newly created object. It is called every time the class is instantiated.
class Animal: def __init__(self, voice): self.voice = voice # When a class instance is created, the instance variable # 'voice' is created and set to the input value. cat = Animal('Meow') print(cat.voice) # Output: Meow dog = Animal('Woof') print(dog.voice) # Output: Woof
Subclassing in Python, also known as “inheritance”, allows classes to share the same attributes and methods from a parent or superclass. Inheritance in Python can be accomplished by putting the superclass name between parentheses after the subclass or child class name.
In the example code block, the
Dog class subclasses the
Animal class, inheriting all of its attributes.
class Animal: def __init__(self, name, legs): self.name = name self.legs = legs class Dog(Animal): def sound(self): print("Woof!") Yoki = Dog("Yoki", 4) print(Yoki.name) # YOKI print(Yoki.legs) # 4 Yoki.sound() # Woof!
User-defined exceptions in Python
In Python, new exceptions can be defined by creating a new class which has to be derived, either directly or indirectly, from Python’s Exception class.
class CustomError(Exception): pass
Python issubclass() Function
issubclass() built-in function checks if the first argument is a subclass of the second argument.
In the example code block, we check that
Member is a subclass of the
class Family: def type(self): print("Parent class") class Member(Family): def type(self): print("Child class") print(issubclass(Member, Family)) # True
Method Overriding in Python
In Python, inheritance allows for method overriding, which lets a child class change and redefine the implementation of methods already defined in its parent class.
The following example code block creates a
ParentClass and a
ChildClass which both define a
ChildClass inherits from the
ParentClass, the method
print_test() will be overridden by
ChildClasssuch that it prints the word “Child” instead of “Parent”.
class ParentClass: def print_self(self): print("Parent") class ChildClass(ParentClass): def print_self(self): print("Child") child_instance = ChildClass() child_instance.print_self() # Child
Super() Function in Python Inheritance
super() function allows a subclass to invoke its parent’s version of an overridden method.
class ParentClass: def print_test(self): print("Parent Method") class ChildClass(ParentClass): def print_test(self): print("Child Method") # Calls the parent's version of print_test() super().print_test() child_instance = ChildClass() child_instance.print_test() # Output: # Child Method # Parent Method
Polymorphism in Python
When two Python classes offer the same set of methods with different implementations, the classes are polymorphic and are said to have the same interface. An interface in this sense might involve a common inherited class and a set of overridden methods. This allows using the two objects in the same way regardless of their individual types.
When a child class overrides a method of a parent class, then the type of the object determines the version of the method to be called. If the object is an instance of the child class, then the child class version of the overridden method will be called. On the other hand, if the object is an instance of the parent class, then the parent class version of the method is called.
class ParentClass: def print_self(self): print('A') class ChildClass(ParentClass): def print_self(self): print('B') obj_A = ParentClass() obj_B = ChildClass() obj_A.print_self() # A obj_B.print_self() # B
In Python, the
+ operation can be defined for a user-defined class by giving that class an
class A: def __init__(self, a): self.a = a def __add__(self, other): return self.a + other.a obj1 = A(5) obj2 = A(10) print(obj1 + obj2) # 15
Dunder methods in Python
Dunder methods, which stands for “Double Under” (Underscore) methods, are special methods which have double underscores at the beginning and end of their names.
We use them to create functionality that can’t be represented as a normal method, and resemble native Python data type interactions. A few examples for dunder methods are:
The example code block shows a class with a definition for the
__init__ dunder method.
class String: # Dunder method to initialize object def __init__(self, string): self.string = string string1 = String("Hello World!") print(string1.string) # Hello World!