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React Router

What is React Router?

React Router is a library that provides navigational components for React developers to create Single-Page Applications (SPAs) with dynamic, client-side routing.

Applications that use React-Router can benefit from the separation of content afforded to multi-page applications without the break in the user-experience caused by page reloads.

Importing BrowserRouter

In order to use React Router, the BrowserRouter component (often alias as Router) must be imported into the top-level component file.

Wrapping the top-level component with BrowserRouter gives your application’s entire component tree access to React Router.

import React from "react"; import { BrowserRouter as Router } from "react-router-dom"; export default function TopLevelComponent () { return ( <Router> application contents here </Router> ) }


React Router’s <Route> component is designed to render its children when its path prop matches the current URL.

The <Route> component has a boolean prop exact that, when true, will cause the <Route> to render its children only when the current URL exactly matches the <Route> component’s path. When exact is false (its default value), a <Route> will render if its path partially matches the current URL.

import React from "react"; import { BrowserRouter as Router, Route } from "react-router-dom"; import Users from "../features/users/Users" import NewUser from "../features/users/NewUser"; export default const App () { return ( <Router> <Route path="/users" exact> <Users /> </Route> <Route path="/users/new"> <NewUser /> </Route> </Router> ) }

React Router’s <Link> component can be used to create links for navigation. The to prop specifies the location to which the user will be redirected after clicking on the <Link>.

Rendering a <Link> will insert an anchor tag (<a>) in your HTML document, but the anchor’s default behavior (triggering a page reload) will be disabled. This allows the application’s <Router> to respond to URL changes by rendering the appropriate content.

<Link to="/about">About</Link>

React Router’s <NavLink> is a special type of <Link> that can be styled differently when the component’s to prop matches the current location.

The activeClassName prop (whose default value is 'active') specifies the class that will be applied when the to prop on the <NavLink> matches the current location.

<NavLink to="/about" activeClassName="highlighted" > About </NavLink>

URL Parameters

URL parameters are dynamic (ie. non-constant) segments of a <Route> component’s path prop. They can be used to dynamically serve resources based on the current window location.

A URL parameter begins with a colon and is followed by the name of the parameter, like so: :parameter. To specify that a URL parameter is optional, append a question mark, like so: :parameter?.

import { BrowserRouter as Router, Route } from "react-router-dom" import Book from "../features/books/Book" function App () { return ( <Router> {/* bookId is required to render <Book /> */} {/* page is not required to render <Book /> */} <Route path="/books/:bookId/:page?"> <Book /> </Route> </Router> ) }


React Router’s useParams() hook can be used by a component rendered by a <Route> with a dynamic path to get the names and values of the current URL’s parameters.

This function returns an object containing a key/value pair for each URL parameter where the key is the URL parameter’s name and the value is the parameter’s current value.

import React from "react"; import { useParams } from "react-router-dom"; // assume this component is rendered by a <Route> with the path "/users/:userName" export default const UserProfile () { const { userName } = useParams() return ( <h1> Welcome {userName}! </h1> ) /* If the user visits /users/Codey, the following will be rendered: <h1> Welcome Codey! */ }


React Router’s <Switch> renders the first of its child <Route> or <Redirect> components whose path prop matches the current URL.

When wrapping multiple <Route> components in a <Switch>, it is important to order the <Route> components from most specific to least specific.

// Right: navigating to "/songs/123" will cause the first route to render, whereas navigating to "/songs" will cause the second to render <Switch> <Route path="/songs/:songId"> <Song /> </Route> <Route path="/songs"> <AllSongs /> </Route> </Switch> // Wrong: navigating to "/songs/123" OR "/songs" will cause the first route to render. The second route will never render. <Switch> <Route path="/songs"> <AllSongs /> </Route> <Route path="/songs/:songId"> <Song /> </Route> </Switch>


<Routes> may be rendered in any component that descends from your Router. So, even components rendered by a <Route> can themselves render other <Route> components.

React Router’s useRouteMatch() hook helps construct relative path and to props for <Route> and <Link> components by returning a match object with url and path properties:

  • The path property is used to build a nested <Route> component’s paths prop relative to the parent <Route>.
  • The url property is used to build a nested <Link> component’s to prop relative to the parent <Route>.
// App.js import React from "react"; import { BrowserRouter as Router, Route } from "react-router-dom"; import UserProfile from "../features/users/UserProfile"; export default function App () { return ( <Router> <Route path="/users/:userId"> <UserProfile /> </Route> </Router> ) } // UserProfile.js import React from "react"; import { Route, Link, useRouteMatch } from "react-router-dom"; import FriendList from "./FriendList"; export default function UserProfile () { const { path, url } = useRouteMatch(); return ( <div> <SomeUserProfileInformation/> {/* Redirects to '/users/123/friends' */} <Link to={`${url}/friends`}>Friends</Link> {/* Renders <FriendList/> for the path '/users/:userId/friends' */} <Route path={`${path}/friends`}> <FriendList/> </Route> </div> ) }


When rendered, React Router’s <Redirect> component will change the current URL’s path to the value of its to prop.

const Profile = ({isLoggedIn}) => { if (!isLoggedIn) { return <Redirect to="/sign-up" /> } else { return <ProfileInfo /> } }


React Router’s useHistory()hook returns an instance of the history object, which has a mutable stack-like structure that keeps track of the user’s session history and contains the following useful methods:

  • history.push(location) - imperatively redirects the user to the specified location
  • go(n) - Moves the pointer in the history stack by n entries
  • goBack() - Equivalent to go(-1)
  • goForward() - Equivalent to go(1)”
import React from "react"; import { useHistory } from "react-router-dom"; export default function Footer () { const history = useHistory(); return ( <footer> <button onClick={() => history.goBack()}> Back </button> <button onClick={() => history.goForward()}> Forward </button> <button onClick={() => history.push('/about')}> About </button> </footer> ) }

Query Parameters

Query parameters appear in URLs beginning with a question mark (?) and are followed by a parameter name assigned to a value. They are optional and are most often used to search, sort and/or filter resources.

For example, if you were to visit the provided URL you would be taken to Google’s /search page displaying results for the search term 'codecademy'. In this example, the name of the query parameter is q.


React Router’s useLocation() hook returns an object whose search property corresponds to the current URL’s query string.

Passing the search string to the URLSearchParams constructor yields an object whose .get(paramName) method returns the value of paramName.

// If the user visits /search/?term=codecademy... const { search } = useLocation(); // The value of search would be '?term=codecademy' const queryParams = new URLSearchParams(search); // queryParams is an object with a .get() method... const termValue = queryParams.get('term'); // ... and termValue would be 'codecademy'