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Defining an Enumeration

Enumerations (or enums) are used to define a new custom type with a list of possible cases. When creating an instance of an enumeration, its value must be one of the cases.

enum Day {
case monday
case tuesday
case wednesday
case thursday
case friday
case saturday
case sunday
let casualWorkday: Day = .friday

Switch Statements

Switch statements are used to determine the case of an enumeration. When switching on an enumeration, all cases must be addressed if a default is not provided. Switching on enumerations can also access the associated values of a case.

enum Dessert {
case cake(flavor: String)
case vanillaIceCream(scoops: Int)
case brownie
let customerOrder: Dessert = .cake(flavor: "Red Velvet")
switch customerOrder {
case let .cake(flavor):
print("You ordered a \(flavor) cake")
case let .vanillaIceCream(scoopCount):
print("You ordered \(scoopCount) scoops of vanilla ice cream")
case .brownie:
print("You ordered a brownie")
// Prints: "You ordered a Red Velvet cake"


Add conformance to the CaseIterable protocol to access an allCases property that returns an array of all the cases of an enumeration.

enum Season: CaseIterable {
case winter
case spring
case summer
case fall
for season in Season.allCases {

Raw Values

Enumerations can have a raw value associated with each case by adding : RawValueType after the enumeration name. A String, Character, Int, Double, or Float can be assigned as a raw value. Enumerations with a raw value can be instantiated using the init(rawValue:). Instances of enumerations with a raw value have a rawValue property.

enum Grade: Character {
case pass = "P"
case fail = "F"
let mathTest = Grade.pass
print(mathTest.rawValue) // Prints "P"

Associated Values

Each case in an enumeration can have a value associated with it. Enumerations can have a raw value or cases with associated values, but not both.

enum Dessert {
case cake(flavor: String)
case vanillaIceCream(scoops: Int)
case brownie
let customerOrder: Dessert = .cake(flavor: "Red Velvet")

Instance Methods

Just like classes and structures, enumerations can have instance methods. If an instance method changes the value of the enumeration, it needs to be marked as mutating.

enum Traffic {
case light
case medium
case heavy
mutating func reportAccident() {
self = .heavy
var currentTraffic: Traffic = .light
currentTraffic.reportAccident() // currentTraffic is now .heavy

Computed Properties

An enumeration can have computed properties defined within its declaration. Enumerations cannot contain stored properties.

enum ShirtSize: String {
case small = "S"
case medium = "M"
case large = "L"
case extraLarge = "XL"
var description: String {
return "This shirt size is \(self.rawValue)"

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