Python provides a module named
datetime to deal with dates and times.
It allows you to set
time or both
time using the
datetime() functions respectively, after importing the
datetime module .
import datetimefeb_16_2019 = datetime.date(year=2019, month=2, day=16)feb_16_2019 = datetime.date(2019, 2, 16)print(feb_16_2019) #2019-02-16time_13_48min_5sec = datetime.time(hour=13, minute=48, second=5)time_13_48min_5sec = datetime.time(13, 48, 5)print(time_13_48min_5sec) #13:48:05timestamp= datetime.datetime(year=2019, month=2, day=16, hour=13, minute=48, second=5)timestamp = datetime.datetime(2019, 2, 16, 13, 48, 5)print (timestamp) #2019-01-02 13:48:05
Categorical variables consist of data that can be grouped into distinct categories, and are ordinal or nominal. Ordinal categorical variables which are groups that contain an inherent ranking, such as ratings of plays or responses to a survey question with a point scale e.g., on a scale from 1-7, how happy are you right now? Nominal categorical variables are made of categories without an inherent order, examples of nominal variables are species of ants, or people’s hair color.
When working with nominal categorical variables in Python, it can be useful to use One-Hot Encoding, which is a technique that will effectively create binary variables for each of the nominal categories. This encodes the variable without creating an order among the categories. To one-hot encode a variable in a pandas dataframe, we can use the
df = pd.get_dummies(data = df, columns= ['column1', 'column2')
One way to summarize a categorical variable is to compute the frequencies of the categories. For further summarization, the frequency of the modal category (most frequent category) is often reported. For example, when analyzing a dataset with an education level variable (highschool, associates, bachelors, masters, etc.), we could calculate the frequency of each category and report the most common category. For a pandas dataframe, we can use the
.value_counts() method on a column of data to calculate the frequencies of the categories.
# calculate counts of values for a column in a dataframe:df['column_name'].value_counts()
Categorical Data refers to data represented by words rather than numbers. Examples of categorical data are tree species and survey responses (Agree, Neutral, Disagree).
Categorical variables can be either ordinal (ordered) or nominal (unordered).
Examples of ordinal variables include places (1st, 2nd, 3rd) and survey responses (on a scale of 1 to 5, how much do you agree with a statement).
Examples of nominal variables include tree species, student names, and account names.