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Python: Modules

Date and Time in Python

Python provides a module named datetime to deal with dates and times.

It allows you to set date ,time or both date and time using the date(),time()and datetime() functions respectively, after importing the datetime module .

import datetime
feb_16_2019 =, month=2, day=16)
feb_16_2019 =, 2, 16)
print(feb_16_2019) #2019-02-16
time_13_48min_5sec = datetime.time(hour=13, minute=48, second=5)
time_13_48min_5sec = datetime.time(13, 48, 5)
print(time_13_48min_5sec) #13:48:05
timestamp= datetime.datetime(year=2019, month=2, day=16, hour=13, minute=48, second=5)
timestamp = datetime.datetime(2019, 2, 16, 13, 48, 5)
print (timestamp) #2019-01-02 13:48:05

Aliasing with ‘as’ keyword

In Python, the as keyword can be used to give an alternative name as an alias for a Python module or function.

# Aliasing matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from matplotlib import pyplot as plt
plt.plot(x, y)
# Aliasing calendar as c
import calendar as c

Import Python Modules

The Python import statement can be used to import Python modules from other files.

Modules can be imported in three different ways: import module, from module import functions, or from module import *. from module import * is discouraged, as it can lead to a cluttered local namespace and can make the namespace unclear.

# Three different ways to import modules:
# First way
import module
# Second way
from module import function
# Third way
from module import *

random.randint() and random.choice()

In Python, the random module offers methods to simulate non-deterministic behavior in selecting a random number from a range and choosing a random item from a list.

The randint() method provides a uniform random selection from a range of integers. The choice() method provides a uniform selection of a random element from a sequence.

# Returns a random integer N in a given range, such that start <= N <= end
# random.randint(start, end)
r1 = random.randint(0, 10)
print(r1) # Random integer where 0 <= r1 <= 10
# Prints a random element from a sequence
seq = ["a", "b", "c", "d", "e"]
r2 = random.choice(seq)
print(r2) # Random element in the sequence

Module importing

In Python, you can import and use the content of another file using import filename, provided that it is in the same folder as the current file you are writing.

# file1 content
# def f1_function():
# return "Hello World"
# file2
import file1
# Now we can use f1_function, because we imported file1

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