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Published Oct 31, 2023
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In C#, a class serves as a blueprint or template for creating objects. It plays a fundamental role in defining the structure, behavior, and attributes of these objects. A class can be thought of as a user-defined data type that encapsulates both data (attributes) and the actions (methods) that are applied to that data.

Syntax for Declaring Classes

To declare a class in C#, use the class keyword, followed by the class name. Class names should follow C# naming conventions (typically using PascalCase). The class definition is enclosed within curly braces {}.

public class MyClass {
// Fields, properties, and methods go here

Properties and Methods

  • Properties: Properties are used to define the attributes or data members of a class. They are defined within the class and provide access to the class’s internal state.
  • Methods: Methods are functions defined within the class that perform actions or operations. They can modify the class’s state or provide functionality.

Access Modifiers

C# provides access modifiers to control the visibility and accessibility of class members. Common access modifiers include:

  • public: Members are accessible from any code.
  • private: Members are only accessible within the class.
  • protected: Members are accessible within the class and derived classes.
  • internal: Members are accessible within the same assembly (a group of related classes in the same project).
  • protected internal: Members are accessible within the same assembly and derived classes.
  • private protected: Members are accessible only from derived classes within the current assembly. This access modifier has been available since C# 7.2 and later.


Here is a simple example featuring a class with properties and methods. By employing various access modifiers in C#, this example illustrates the use of public methods, such as GetBalance, to access private properties like the current balance. Meanwhile, it showcases that private methods like PerformAudit() are inaccessible from external code.

using System;
public class Program {
public static void Main() {
// Create a BankAccount instance with an initial balance of $1000.
BankAccount account = new BankAccount(1000);
// Use the GetBalance method to get the current balance.
double currentBalance = account.GetBalance();
Console.WriteLine("Current Balance: $" + currentBalance);
// Attempt to call the private method PerformAudit (won't compile).
// This will result in a compilation error because private methods cannot be accessed from outside the class.
// account.PerformAudit();
public class BankAccount {
// Keeping track of current balance.
private double balance;
// Constructor
public BankAccount(double initialAmount) {
balance = initialAmount;
// Accessor method for balance.
public double GetBalance() {
return balance;
// Private method to perform a transaction audit.
private void PerformAudit() {
// In a real application, this method would perform auditing.
// For this example, we'll just print a message.
Console.WriteLine("Audit complete.");

Static Classes

Static classes are defined using the static keyword and exclusively contain static members, such as methods, properties, and fields. Unlike regular classes, static classes cannot be instantiated with the new keyword. Instead, their members are accessed using the class name itself. These classes are commonly used for utility functions or to group related functionality.

Partial classes

Partial classes in C# enable class definitions to be split across multiple files. Each part of the class is defined in a separate file and combined at compile time to create a single class. This is valuable for scenarios where a class becomes too large or complex, or when multiple developers need to work on different aspects of the class simultaneously.

Partial Classes

In the image above, the Calculator class is depicted as a partial class structure, allowing independent development of class components. In the code below, the application’s entry point, the Main method, creates an instance of the Calculator class and utilizes its methods for addition and subtraction operations.

using System;
class Program {
static void Main() {
Calculator calculator = new Calculator();
int result1 = calculator.Add(5, 3);
int result2 = calculator.Subtract(10, 4);
Console.WriteLine("Addition: " + result1); // Output: Addition: 8
Console.WriteLine("Subtraction: " + result2); // Output: Subtraction: 6

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