Vectors

A vector is a dynamic list of items, that can shrink and grow in size. It can only store values of the same type.

Different Ways to Create a Vector

To use vectors, it is necessary to #include the vector library.

#include <vector>

During the creation of a C++ vector, the data type of its elements must be specified. Once the vector is created, the type cannot be changed.

std::vector<type> name;

Create and Intitialize a Vector

std::vector<double> order = {3.99, 12.99, 2.49};

Index

An index refers to an element’s position within an ordered list, like a vector or an array. The first element has an index of 0.

A specific element in a vector or an array can be accessed using its index, like name[index].

std::vector<double> order = {3.99, 12.99, 2.49};
// What's the first element?
std::cout << order;
// What's the last element?
std::cout << order;

There are two different ways to insert elements into the vector.

.push_back()

This method pushes elements to the back of a vector.

std::vector<int> v = {1,2,3,4};
v.push_back(5);
int n = v.size();
std::cout << "The last element is: " << v[n - 1];
// Output: The last element is: 5

.insert()

This method inserts new elements before the element at the specified position.

std::vector<int> v = {1,2,3,4};
// Insert at beginning
v.insert(v.begin(), 0);
// Insert at end
v.insert(v.end(),6);
std::cout << "The first element is: " << v << "\n";
// Output: The first element is: 0
std::cout << "The last element is: " << v << "\n";
// Output: The last element is: 6

Codebyte Example

To create a vector named grade with 3 items and then insert elements to the last of the vector using .push_back() and .insert() functions :