Published Aug 2, 2021Updated Sep 5, 2023
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Internet of Things (IoT) is a term used to describe hardware which can be connected to the internet in order to provide a service.

IoT devices primarily work through the use of sensors associated with devices that communicate data to a server. These devices communicate over a network to determine and provide information on the devices current state. Due to the extensive number of sensors and chips necessary for IOT devices there is a need for efficient and ecologically sustainable practices when it comes production of IoT appliances.


The very first IoT devices were vending machines connected to ARPANET in 1982. These connected devices reported inventory and temperature of individual drinks. Today IoT has expanded to a myriad of use cases and promises to be a lucrative sector as more and more devices become connected.

Experts predict that in the year 2033 there will be more devices connected to the internet than human beings, but due to the limits of IPV4 (number of unique IP addresses) the adoption of IPV6 will be needed to support connectivity for the increasing number of IoT devices.

Two of the major challenges associated with IoT are security and privacy. While there are various competing standards for securing IoT devices, these standards have yet to become adopted across the board and therefore the spectrum of security of devices range with some devices being more secure than others. As a result application security varies from provider to provider depending on their respective security and privacy practices.

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