id

Published Feb 5, 2023Updated Nov 24, 2023
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The HTML global id attribute is used to specify a unique identifier for an HTML element. It cannot be shared across multiple elements within the same HTML document. The id attribute can be used as a bookmark to navigate to a specific point in a document. It can also serve as a selector in CSS to style the element or to manipulate the element in JavaScript. Contrary to the class attribute, elements can only have one id value.

Syntax

<div id="myElement">My Element</div>

The syntax consists of id followed by the assignment operator (=) and an id name in quotation marks (" "). The id name is case-sensitive and must contain at least one character. It cannot start with a number or contain whitespaces.

Unique ID Attributes

Specific and unique id attributes can be assigned to elements to differentiate them, and id values can be referenced in CSS and JavaScript to manipulate, format, and perform specific instructions on a single element alone, without affecting others of the same type.

Valid id attribute values begin with a letter and must comprise only letters (a-Z), digits (0-9), hyphens (-), underscores (_), and periods (.).

<h1 id="th1s_is.v4lid">Hello World</h1>

Note: While th1s_is.v4lid is indeed a valid id value, it’s best to use a consistent naming scheme such as camel case (thisIsValid), dash case (this-is-valid), or snake case (this_is_valid).

Example

In the example below, the <p> (paragraph) element is given a unique identifier in its id attribute, and the text color is set using the style attribute:

<p id="my-paragraph" style="color: aqua;">
Here's some text that is being altered by the HTML attributes
</p>

Use of unique id attribute with inline CSS

Navigation Using Bookmarks

Bookmarks allow users to navigate on a webpage using links leading to another location on a page (i.e., to another element) with a specific id.

Example

Element with a defined id attribute that serves as a bookmark:

<h3 id="my-city">About my city</h3>

Link to the bookmark:

<a href="#my-city">Navigate to the section about my city</a>

A link can also target a location on another page:

<a href="city.html#my-city">Jump to the section about my city</a>

Clicking on the link in the examples above will direct the browser screen to the location where id is "my-city" (either on the same page or on another page).

Use of a unique id attribute for navigation on the same and other pages in the website

Styling With id

Similarly to the class attribute, id is typically used to assign styles to the element it identifies. However, only one specific element can be targeted with id (compared to the class attribute which can be used to target multiple elements at once).

Example

Styling via id in a stylesheet:

#my-city {
color: #ff0000;
}

The HTML element with id is selected in CSS for styling using # followed by the id value. This applies to internal or external ruleset styling methods. The example above applies a color to the designated element, for an overview of all styling methods, please see CSS Anatomy.

CSS styling using id selector

Using id With JavaScript

The id attribute is also used to manipulate the element through DOM (Document Object Model) with JavaScript.

Example

function changeColor(newColor) {
let element = document.getElementById('idOfElement');
element.style.color = newColor;
}

In the example above, the element is selected using the getElementById() method. The color of that element is then changed by assigning a new value, that is passed in as an argument of the function, to the style.color property.

Use of id attributes to style HTML elements in JavaScript

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