.reduce()

The .reduce() array method combines each element of an array, using a reducer function you specify, and returns a single value.

Syntax

array.reduce((accumulator, currentValue, index, array) => {...}, initialValue)

The reducer function takes four arguments:

  • accumulator is the returned value from the function.
  • currentValue is the element being iterated over.
  • index (optional) is the index of the currentValue.
  • array (optional) is the array the .reduce() was called on.

The accumulator‘s value accumulates with each iteration through the array, resulting in a single value.

.reduce() takes two arguments:

  • The first, is the reducer function that performs the reduction operation.
  • The second (optional) argument is an initial value to pass to the function.

For example:

array.reduce((acc, curr) => acc + curr, 10);

Example 1

Add strings in an array.

const a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e'];
console.log(a.reduce((acc, curr) => acc + curr));
// Output: 'abcde'

Example 2

Add the values of each element together with an initial value.

const a = ['b', 'c', 'd', 'e'];
console.log(a.reduce((acc, curr) => acc + curr, 'a'));
// Output: 'abcde'

Example 3

Subtract numbers in an array with initial value provided:

const monthlyBudget = 3000;
const expenses = [300, 200, 454, 225, 1200];
bankBalance = expenses.reduce((acc, curr) => acc - curr, monthlyBudget);
console.log(bankBalance);
// Output: 621
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