Variables

Variables are used to store pieces of data that can be either mutable or read-only. The value stored in a variable can be of different data types (e.g., numbers, characters, strings).

Syntax

var x: Type = mutableValue
val y = readOnlyValue

In Kotlin, the var keyword is used to declare mutable variable while the val keyword is used for a read-only variable. The variable can either be explicitly typed, as shown with x. The type can also be inferred, as shown with y.

Note: Unlike other programming languages, Kotlin doesn’t have a null type. Instead, it has nullable and non-nullable types. A nullable type can hold a null value, while a non-nullable type cannot. To declare a nullable type, the ? operator is used after the type. For example:

fun main() {
// Declare a nullable variable
var z: String? = null
}

Delegated properties

In Kotlin, variables can have delegated properties that are computed automatically by a delegate object rather than being stored directly in the class. Here’s an example of how to declare a delegated property in Kotlin:

import kotlin.reflect.KProperty
class Example {
var prop: String by Delegate()
}
class Delegate {
operator fun getValue(thisRef: Any?, property: KProperty<*>): String {
return "$thisRef, thank you for delegating '${property.name}' to me!"
}
operator fun setValue(thisRef: Any?, property: KProperty<*>, value: String) {
println("$value has been assigned to '${property.name}' in $thisRef.")
}
}

Example

The following example applies the Example and Delegate classes from the previous section. The prop property of the Example class is delegated to an instance of the Delegate class. The getValue and setValue functions of the Delegate class define how the property is accessed and modified.

fun main() {
val example = Example()
example.prop = "Hello"
println(example.prop)
}

This prints the following output:

Hello has been assigned to 'prop' in [email protected]
[email protected], thank you for delegating 'prop' to me!

When value of prop is set, it calls the setValue function of the Delegate class, which prints a message. After the prop value is retrieved, the getValue() function is called and a string is returned.

Delegated properties are a powerful and flexible feature of Kotlin that can be used to implement various design patterns, such as the observer pattern or the proxy pattern. They can also be used to simplify code by abstracting away common property-related tasks, such as lazy initialization or thread-safe access.

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