# Operators

Published Aug 10, 2023

Contribute to Docs

**Operators** are special characters that can carry out mathematical tasks and resolve logical expressions.

## Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic operators can be used to carry out mathematical functions:

-- Addition. Adds two numbers.print(1 + 1) -- "2"-- Subtraction. Subtracts two numbersprint(2 - 1) -- "1"-- Multiplication. Multiplies two numbers.print(2 * 2) -- "4"-- Division. Divides two numbers.print(4 / 2) -- "2"-- Exponentiation. Performs an exponential operationprint(3 ^ 3) -- "27"-- Modulus. This is a special operator that returns the remainder of a division expression.print(16 % 3) -- "1" (16 divided by 3 would leave a remainder of 1)print(25 % 5) -- "0" (25 divides evenly into 5)-- Unary negation. This is not the same as subtraction, as it can be placed in front of a number/expression to negate it.print(-1) -- "-1"print(5 + (-1)) -- "4"print(-(4 * 4)) -- "-16"

## Compound Assignments

Compound assignments can be used to carry out mathematical operations and assign them to variables. To prevent errors, the initial value assigned to the variable should align with the input used to update the variable.

Within the following examples, `n = 2`

.

Compound Operation | Operation | Shorthand | Expanded Form | Result |
---|---|---|---|---|

`+=` |
Addition | `n += 1` |
`n = n + 1` |
`3` |

`-=` |
Subtraction | `n -= 1` |
`n = n - 1` |
`1` |

`*=` |
Multiplication | `n \*= 2` |
`n = n * 2` |
`4` |

`/=` |
Division | `n /= 2` |
`n = n / 2` |
`1` |

`^=` |
Exponentiation | `n ^= 3` |
`n = n ^ 3` |
`8` |

`%=` |
Modulus | `n %= 2` |
`n = n % 2` |
`0` |

`..=` |
Concatenation | `n ..= “ Apples!”` |
`n = n.." Apples!"` |
`“2 Apples!”` |

## Logical Operators

Logical operators return boolean or `nil`

evaluations for conditional statements.

Logical Operator | Description |
---|---|

`and` |
Resolves as `true` if both conditions are true |

`or` |
Resolves as `true` if either condition is true |

`not` |
Returns the opposite result of the provided conditional expression. |

## Relational Operators

Relational operators compare two values and resolve as `true`

or `false`

.

Compound Operation | Operation | Example |
---|---|---|

`==` |
Equal to | `10 == 1` → `false` |

`~=` |
Not equal to | `10 ~= 1` → `true` |

`>` |
Greater than | `10 > 1` → `true` |

`<` |
Less than | `10 < 1` → `false` |

`>=` |
Greater than or equal to | `10 >= 1` → `true` |

`<=` |
Less than or equal to | `10 <= 1` → `false` |

### Contribute to Docs

- Learn more about how to get involved.
- Edit this page on GitHub to fix an error or make an improvement.
- Submit feedback to let us know how we can improve Docs.