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Published Apr 18, 2024
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The .percentile() function returns the Xth percentile of the given data along a specified axis. Percentiles are used in statistics to measure the distribution of data. The Xth percentile is the value below which X percent of the data falls. For example, the 95th percentile is the value greater than exactly 95 percent of the data.


numpy.percentile(a, X, axis=None, out=None, overwrite_input=False, method='Linear', keepdims=False)

Required Parameters:

  • a: The input data from which the percentile is to be calculated.
  • X: The list of numbers representing the percentiles to be calculated.

Optional Parameters:

  • axis: The axis along which the percentile is to be calculated. If not specified, the percentile is calculated along a flattened version of a.
  • out: The output array that has the same shape as the output of the function.
  • overwrite_input: If True, this allows calculations to be performed on the input array, a.
  • method: Defines the method used to calculate the percentile. Other than ‘Linear’, it can be set to ‘inverted_cdf’, ‘averaged_inverted_cdf’, ‘closest_observation’, ‘interpolated_inverted_cdf’, ‘hazen’, ‘weibull’, ‘median_unbiased’ and ‘normal_unbiased’.
  • keepdims: If True, the axes that are reduced when calculating the percentile are kept in the result with dimensions of size one.


  • If X is a single value and axis=None, the function returns a single value representing the Xth percentile of all the values in a.
  • If X is an array, the function returns an array where each element contains a percentile corresponding to the values specified in X.
  • If axis is given, the function calculates the percentiles of the values along the specified axes.


The following example creates an array and then uses .percentile() to calculate various percentiles from the data:

import numpy as np
a = np.array([[1,2,3],[4,5,6]])

This prints the following output:

[2.5 3.5 4.5]
[3.5 4.75]
[[2. 5. ]
[2.5 5.5]]

Codebyte Example

The following example calculates different percentile values for the given array, a:

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