# Operators

Operators are used in R to perform various operations on variables and values. Among the most commonly used ones are arithmetic and assignment operators.

## Syntax

The following R code uses an arithmetic operator for multiplication, `*`

, to calculate the product of two numbers, along with the assignment operator, `<-`

to store the result in the variable `x`

.

# Store five times three in variable xx <- 5 * 3

Operators in R can be organized into the following groups:

- Arithmetic operators for traditional mathematical evaluations such as addition and subtraction.
- Assignment operators for assigning values to variables.
- Comparison operators for testing equality between values.
- Logical operators for evaluating the “truthiness” of values against one another.
- Miscellaneous operators for various tasks including vectors and sequencing.

## Arithmetic operators

R supports the following arithmetic operators:

- Addition,
`+`

, which returns the sum of two numbers. - Subtraction,
`-`

, which returns the difference between two numbers. - Multiplication,
`*`

, which returns the product of two numbers. - Division,
`/`

, which returns the quotient of two numbers. - Exponents,
`^`

, which returns the value of one number raised to the power of another. - Modulus,
`%%`

, which returns the remainder of one number divided by another. - Integer Division,
`%/%`

, which returns the integer quotient of two numbers.

## Assignment operators

R uses the following assignment operators:

`<-`

assigns a value to a variable from right to left.`->`

assigns a value to a variable left to right.`<<-`

is a global version of`<-`

.`->>`

is a global version of`->`

.`=`

works the same way as`<-`

, but its use is discouraged.

## Comparison operators

R has the following comparison operators:

- Equal,
`==`

, which returns`TRUE`

if two values are equal. - Not equal,
`!=`

, which returns`TRUE`

if two values are not equal. - Less than,
`<`

, which returns`TRUE`

if left value is less than right value. - Less than or equal to,
`<=`

, which returns`TRUE`

if left value is less than or equal to right value. - Greater than,
`>`

, which returns`TRUE`

if left value is greater than right value. - Greater than or equal to,
`>=`

, which returns`TRUE`

if left value is greater than or equal to right value.

## Logical operators

R has the following logical operators:

- Element-wise AND,
`&`

, for comparing each element and returning`TRUE`

if both elements are`TRUE`

. - Logical AND,
`&&`

, which returns`TRUE`

if both values are`TRUE`

, only evaluates as many elements as necessary. - Element-wise OR,
`|`

, for comparing each element and returning`TRUE`

if either element is`TRUE`

. - Logical OR,
`||`

, which returns`TRUE`

if either value is`TRUE`

, only evaluates as many elements as necessary. - Logical NOT,
`!`

, which returns`TRUE`

if the associated statement is`FALSE`

.

Note: The long form of AND and OR (`&&`

and `||`

) are preferred for `if`

statements as the short form can produce a vector value.

## Miscellaneous operators

R uses the following miscellaneous operators:

- The
`:`

operator creates a sequence of numbers from the left argument to the right one. - The
`%in%`

operator returns`TRUE`

if the left argument is in the vector to the right. - The
`%*%`

operator performs matrix multiplication on two matrices.