The useState() hook returns the current state of the component and its setter function. State must be changed through the setter only and not be mutated directly as it may cause unexpected behavior.


import React, { useState } from 'react';

const [state, setState] = useState(initialValue);

When the component is first rendered, its state is assigned an initialValue through the useState() hook. If one is not provided, the default value is undefined. Afterwards, the setState function can change the value of state and trigger a re-render of the component.

The state must be changed only through the setState function and not be mutated directly as this may cause unexpected behavior.

The return value of useState() is an array whose elements (the state and setter function) can be accessed through destructuring.

Note: The name of the setter function should correlate with the name of the state value (e.g., const [time, setTime] = useState(0);).

Example 1

A controlled input whose value depends on the name state and changes it through setName setter on onChange event.

import React, { useState } from 'react';
function ProfileName() {
const [name, setName] = useState('');
function handleChange(event) {
Sets the name state to the value of
the input after the onChange event.
return <input value={name} onChange={handleChange} />;

Example 2

In cases where the component state is an array or object, the setter function must update with a modified copy of the state, not the original.

The following example involves deleting an item from the foods state array and updating with filteredItems through the onClick event:

import React, { useState } from 'react';
function FavoriteFoodList() {
const [foods, setFoods] = useState(['pizza', 'hot dog']);
function handleDeleteFood(deletedIndex) {
Instead of changing the foods array directly,
the .filter() method can be used to return a
copy that excludes the deleted item.
const filteredItems = foods.filter((food, index) => index !== deletedIndex);
return (
{, index) => (
<button onClick={() => handleDeleteFood(index)}>{item}</button>


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