UNION command combines the results of two or more
SELECT queries. When two queries with the same number of columns are joined together with the
UNION command, the combined results from both queries are returned.
UNION is placed between the two queries being combined.
The combined queries can be any valid
SELECT statements, including
GROUP BY, or
HAVING clauses. The only restriction is that the number of columns returned for each query is the same, and the corresponding columns of each query have data types that are compatible with the columns in the first query. The result set will use the column names of the first query, ignoring column names from each subsequent query.
UNION will eliminate any duplicate rows from the result.
SELECT column1, column2, column2 ... columnN FROM table1 UNION SELECT column1, column2, column2 ... columnN FROM table2;
In the snippet above, all rows from
table2 are returned, excluding duplicates.
UNION command also has a
UNION ALL option. The difference between
UNION ALL is that where
UNION will drop any duplicated rows in the result,
UNION ALL will append the complete results of one query to another regardless of duplication.
SELECT column1, column2, column2 ... columnN FROM table1 UNION ALL SELECT column1, column2, column2 ... columnN FROM table2;
All the rows from
table2 are appended with all of the rows from
This example combines the rows from two student tables,
students_term_two, removing any duplicates:
SELECT first_name, last_name, final_gradeFROM students_term_oneUNIONSELECT first_name, last_name, final_gradeFROM students_term_two;
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