Operators

Operators are unique keywords used to perform arithmetic, comparison, and logical operations. They are commonly used in the WHERE clause of an expression.

Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic operators are used to perform arithmetic on numeric types:

  • +: Addition
  • -: Subtraction
  • *: Multiplication
  • /: Division
  • %: Modulo (remainder)

Example

-- Addition
10 + 5
-- Subtraction
10 - 5
-- Multiplication
10 * 5
-- Division
10 / 5
-- Modulo
10 % 5

Comparison Operators

Comparison operators can be used to compare two values:

  • =: Equal to
  • >: Greater than
  • <: Less than
  • >=: Greater than or equal to
  • <=: Less than or equal to
  • !=: Not equal

Example

SELECT *
FROM students
WHERE gpa > 25;

Logical Operators

Logical operators can be used to combine multiple conditions such as AND, OR, NOT or perform operations such as NOT and BETWEEN.

Operators

AND
Tests if all conditions in a given expression evaluate to TRUE.
BETWEEN
Selects values, inclusively of beginning and end values, within a given range. BETWEEN works with numbers, text, or date data types.
EXISTS
Tests a subquery and returns TRUE if at least one record satisfies it.
IN
Allows the user to specify multiple values in the WHERE clause.
IS NOT NULL
Checks if a value is not NULL.
IS NULL
Checks if a value is NULL.
LIKE
Returns `TRUE` if its first text argument matches the wildcard pattern in its second argument.
NOT
Queries for items in an expression that return NOT TRUE for some condition(s).
OR
Test if any condition in a given expression evaluates to TRUE.

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