SQL tables sometimes have a column that uniquely identifies each row of that table. These special columns are called primary keys.
A primary key column has a few requirements:
- None of the values can be
- Each value must be unique (i.e., you can’t have two customers with the same
- A table can not have more than one primary key column.
orders table where the
order_id is its primary key:
PRIMARY KEY columns can be used to uniquely identify the row. Attempts to insert a row with an identical value to a row already in the table will result in a constraint violation which will not allow you to insert the new row.
The statement below sets a
PRIMARY KEY on the
CREATE TABLE students (id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,name TEXT,grade INTEGER,age INTEGER);
When the primary key for one table appears in a different table, it is called a foreign key.
Why is this important? The most common types of joins will be joining a foreign key from one table with the primary key from another table. For instance, when we join the
orders table and the
customers table, we join on the
customer_id column, which is a foreign key in
orders and the primary key in